Free Online English Classes. Lesson 8 – Дарси 8

I. Грамматика: Герундия, таркибҳои герундий ва хусусиятҳои тарҷумаи он.

Лексика: Text: “Planning Jobs

Герундий – шакли бешахси феъл (шакле, ки хабар шуда наметавонад) буда, навъи кор ё фаолияти амал ва мубтадоро ифода мекунад. Чунин тарзи таъйин (муайян кардан)-и герундий ба мо имкон медиҳад, ки ба воситаи исм, масдар, феъли ҳол ё ҷумлаи пайрав ба забони тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунем.

Шаклҳои герундий

Герундий аз бандаки -ing таркиб ёфта, шаклан ба сифати феълӣ (Participle I) ҳамчунин ба гурӯҳи замонҳои Simple ва Perfect монанд мебошад.

Active Passive
Indefinite   *1 writing being written
Perfect       *2 having  written having been written

*1 – амали хабаре, ки дар ҷумла омадааст, герундий ифода мекунад;
*2 – амале, ки герундий ифода кардааст, пеш аз хабар меояд.
He dreams of writing a great novel – Ӯ орзу мекунад, ки романи калонҳаҷм нависад.
He dreams of being written a poem in his honour – Ӯ орзу мекунад, ки ба ифтихораш шеъре эҷод шавад.
He was proud of having written a poem – Ӯ ифтихор мекард, ки шеър эҷод кардааст.
He was proud of having been written a poem – Ӯ ифтихор мекард, ки ба ифтихораш шеър эҷод кардаанд.

Машқи 1. Ҷумлаҳои зеринро ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:
1) I like his method of teaching.
2) It’s no use talking to him.
3) He left without saying a word.
4) He was suspected of keeping something from us.
5) I hate being reminded of things.
6) I don’t remember having seen her there.
7) We insist on John’s making a report.
8) Do you mind our being present.
9) I never heard of him behaving like that.
10) Do you mind my cousin joining us?

Бо калимаҳои нав шинос шавед:
define – муаян кардан
generate – ташкил кардан, умумӣ
order – супориш (заказ)
otherwise – дар акси ҳол
manually – дастӣ  (ручной)
newly – нав
installation – насб
toolbar – меню, панели таҷҳизот
corresponding – махсус, зудамал, мувофиқ, муносиб
relevant – мувофиқ, махсус, асосӣ
confirm – тасдиқ кардан

Машқи 2. Матнро бо диққат хонед ва ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:
When you want to create a list of jobs to be done, this normally requires three steps. When new jobs are defined, it is necessary to generate work orders. Once the work has been performed and reported on a work order, and the status is set to Completed, AMOS M&P automatically generates the next work order based on how the job has been defined (based on frequency, counters or CBM). You must then use the Planning window to set the correct status and otherwise plan each job. This step may be skipped if the system is set up to set the status of generated work orders to Planned automatically.
Finally, you must issue actual work orders based on the generated work orders and those that have been requested manually. Generating the first work order for a newly defined job. This is how you generate a work order for a new job that has been defined:

  1. Start AMOS M&P.
  2. Check that top line of the AMOS M&P window shows the correct Installation and department.
  3. If not, give the menu commknd File/Switch Department or click the corresponding toolbar button and change to the correct department.
  4. Give the menu command Maintenance/Generate Work Orders.
  5. You enter the following dialog box:
  6. Check the relevant boxes in the area Generate Work Orders for.
  7. Check the box Print List of Generated Work Orders if you want to do so, and click OK to generate the work orders. Click OK when you are asked to confirm that you really want to generate work orders.

Машқи 3. Ҷумлаҳои зеринро тарҷума кунед:
They started arguing.
Не stopped working.
He gave up smoking.
He went on eating.
He continued eating.
It kept on raining.
We finished working at noon.
I put off writing a letter.
I can’t help feeling sorry about it.
I am against doing like that.
I am for doing like that.
It is worth doing like that.

Машқи 4. Аз рӯи намуна ҷумлаҳоро пур кунед:
Model: advise you to read the book. The book is worth reading.

  1. Go and see the film. The film_____
  2. That’s a good song._______
  3. Don’t quote this man. He is not worth_____
  4. Remember his words. What he says is worth____

Машқи 5. Мувофиқи намуна савол гузоред:
Model: Its useless to argue with him. What’s the use of arguing with him ?

  1. It’s no use accusing him.________
  2. It’s useless to object to it.________
  3. It’s no use talking, let’s get down to work._____ ;

Машқи 6. Ба забони англисӣ тарҷума кунед:

  1. Ин песаро бояд тамошо кард.
  2. Дар бораи ин воқеаҳо бояд ёдовар шуд.
  3. Аз таваккал (риск) чи манфиат аст?
  4. Аз беҳуда хобидан бароям чӣ манфиат аст?
  5. Аз баҳсу мунозира чӣ нафъ аст?
  6. Ӯ зидди он аст, ки менеҷеронро даъват накунанд.
  7. Ӯ зидди ин аст, ки Шумо иқтисодчиёнро таклиф накунед.
  8. Ӯ мухолифи он аст, ки менеҷерро таклиф накунанд.
  9. Аз сӯҳбат бо чунин мардум худдорӣ кунед.
  10. Онҳо орзу мекунанд, ки ширкати моро зиёрат кунанд.

Машқи 7. Аз рӯи имкон ҷумлаҳои зиёд созед:
Model: We’ll solve the problem by using this algorithm.
We learn to speak English                                            speaking.
We can’t learn a foreign language only                        arguing.
One learns to swim                                           by        reading books.
You won’t chan ge anything                                          swimming.
You won’t achieve anything                                         shouting

Машқи 8. Нахуст ҷумлаҳоро тарҷума кунед ва бигӯед, ки онҳо кадом банди матнро фаро гирифтаанд?
1) Choosing a computer.
2) Defining the data structure.
3) Making changes to the data.
4) Choosing reliability.

Машқи 9. Шакли дурустро интихоб карда, баъдан тарҷума кунед:
Mustuse а) истифода кардан муки наст.
б) бояд истифода кунед.
May be skipped а) шоядҳазфшудабошад
б) мутавонист ҳазф гардад
Must issue а) бояд муаян кунед
д) бояд қаблан (заранее) муайян гардад

Машқи 10. Калимаҳои зеринро тарҷума кунед:
1) Once ______________
2) If _______________________________
3) Otherwise ________________________
4) How _____________________________
5) This ______________________________
6) Those ____________________________
7) For ______________________________
8) So _______________________________
9) When ____________________________