Free Online English Classes. Lesson 2 – Дарси 2

Мавзӯъ:  Сохти ҷумлаҳои забони англисӣ. Ҷумлаҳои саволӣ (саволҳои махсус). Замонҳои гурӯҳи Indefinite.

  1. Лексика: Text: “Organizational structure 

Замонҳои гурӯҳи Indefinite.

  • Past Indefinite Tense

frequencyoften, sometimes, always
I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
I often brought my lunch to school.
a definite point in timelast week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
We saw a good film last week.
Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
She finished her work atseven o’clock
went to the theatre last night
an indefinite point in timethe other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
She played the piano when she was a child.

  • Present Indefinite Tense
  • In the third person singular the verb always ends in -s:
    he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.
  • Negative and question forms use DOES (= the third person of the auxiliary ‘DO’) + the infinitive of the verb.
    He wants ice cream. Does he want strawberry? He does not want vanilla.
  • Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies:
    fly –> flies, cry –> cries
    Exception: if there is a vowel before the –y:
    play –> plays, pray –> prays
  • Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:
    he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes
  • Future Indefinite Tense 
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I will see I won’t see Will I see? Won’t I see?
*I shall see *Shall I see?
You will see You won’t see Will you see? Won’t you see?
He will see He won’t see Will he see? Won’t he see?
We will see We won’t see Will we see? Won’t we see?
*We shall see *Shall we see?
They will see They won’t see Will they see? Won’t they see?

To predict a future event:
It will rain tomorrow.
With I or We, to express a spontaneous decision:
I’ll pay for the tickets by credit card.
To express willingness:
I’ll do the washing-up.
He’ll carry your bag for you.
In the negative form, to express unwillingness:
The baby won’t eat his soup.
I won’t leave until I’ve seen the manager!
With I in the interrogative form using “shall”, to make an offer:
Shall I open the window?
With We in the interrogative form using “shall”, to make a suggestion:
Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
With I in the interrogative form using “shall”, to ask for advice or instructions:
What shall I tell the boss about this money?
With you, to give orders:
You will do exactly as I say.
With you in the interrogative form, to give an invitation:
Will you come to the dance with me?
Will you marry me?
Бо калима ва ибораҳои нав шинос шавед:

organizational structure – нақшаи ташкилӣ, сохтори ташкилӣ
made up – иборат будан, сохта шудан, ташкил ёфтан
company – ширкат
organize – ташкил кардан
illustrate – ороиш додан (бо расмҳо), бо мисол шарҳ додан
packaging company – ширкати борпечонӣ
be owned – тааллуқ доштан
shareholder – саҳмиядор
directors – аъзои шӯрои директорон
look after – тафтиш (назорат) кардан, мушоҳида кардан
interest – фоизҳо, завқ, шавқ
appoint – таин кардан, муқаррар кардан
run the business – идораи фаъолияти тиҷоратӣ, корбарӣ кардан
day-to-day basis – дар асоси рӯзмарра (ҳаррӯза)
Managing Director – менеҷери марказӣ (генералӣ)
major – асосӣ, назаррас, бузург
responsibility- ҷавобгарӣ
target – ҳадаф, мақсад, нишон
keeping an eye – гоҳ-гоҳ назар андохтан
Distribution Manager – сардори шӯъбаи тақсимот
movement of goods – ҳаркат (тақсимот)-и молҳо (самт), таиноти молҳо
warehouse – анбор
supervising drivers – нумӯя (стимулятор)-ҳои назоратӣ, назорати ронандагон
overseeing – назорат
Production Manager – сардори шӯъбаи истеҳсолот
supply – таъмин, захира
production staff – кормандони истеҳсолот
manpower – қувваи корӣ
Sales Manager – сардори шӯъбаи фурӯш
making contact – алоқа (ҳамкорӣ) кардан, муроҷиат кардан
obtaining orders – қабул кардани супоришот (заказ)
Company Accountant – муҳосиби ширкат
research – тадқиқот, таҳқиқ, омӯзиш
customer services – хизматрасониҳо барои мизоҷон
requirements – талабот
human resources department – шӯъбаи кадрҳо
recruitment – интихоби кадрҳо
employee – корманд
focused activities – ҷамъи амалиёт
cross-functional areas – самтҳои ҳамаҷониба
Information Technology departments – шӯъбаи технологияи иттиллоотӣ
functional areas – соҳаи функсионалӣ

Машқи 1. Матнро хонед ва тарҷума кунед:

Every organization made up of more than one person will need some form of organizational structure.
The way in which a company is organized can be illustrated for a packaging company. The company will be owned by shareholders that choose directors to look after their interests. The directors then appoint managers to run the business on a day-to-day basis. The Managing Director has the major responsibility for running of the company, including setting company targets and keeping an eye on all departments.
The Distribution Manager is responsible for controlling the movement of goods in and out of the warehouse, supervising drivers and overseeing the transport of goods to and from the firm.
The Production Manager is responsible for keeping a continuous supply of work flowing to all production staff and also for organizing manpower to meet the customers’ orders.
The Sales Manager is responsible for making contact with customers and obtaining orders from those contacts.
The Company Accountant controls all the financial dealings of the company and is responsible for producing management accounts and financial reports.
Other organizations will have different structures. For example, most organizations will have a marketing department responsible for market research and marketing planning. A customer services department will look after customer requirements. A human resources department will be responsible for recruitment and selection of new employees, employee motivation and a range of other people focused activities. In addition there will be a number of cross-functional areas such as administration and Information Technology departments that service the functional areas of the company. These departments will provide back up support and training.

Organizations are structured in different ways:

  1. by function as described above,
  2. by regional area – a geographical structure e.g. with a marketing
    manager North, marketing manager South etc.,
  3. by product e.g. marketing manager crisps, marketing manager drinks, etc.
  4. into work teams, etc.

Машқи 2. Таносуби шарҳи дурусти калимаҳоро ёбед:

1. shareholder a. someone whose job is to manage part or all of a company or other organization
2. market b. someone who owns shares in a company or business
3. accountant c. the job of hiring people
4. recruitment d. a place to buy and sell things
5. manager e. someone whose job is to keep and check financial accounts

Машқи 3. Калимаҳои зеринро аз тоҷикӣ ба англисӣ тарҷума кунед:

1. сардори шӯъбаи хариду фурӯш 6.таъин кардан, муайян (мукаррар) кардан
2. сардори шӯъбаи қарзҳо 7. шӯъбаи технологияи иттиллоотӣ
3. гурӯҳи кормандон 8. шӯъбаи хизматрасонии мизоҷон
4. сардори шӯъбаи маркетинг 9. сардори шӯъбаи истеҳсолот
5. саҳмиядор 10. супориш қабул кардан

Машқи 4. Калимаҳои зеринро аз англисӣ ба тоҷикӣ тарҷума кунед:

1. provide back up support 6. organizational structure
2. employee 7. work teams
3. senior manager 8. shareholder
4. junior manager 9. human resources department
5. set company targets 10. market research

Машқи 5. Калима ё ибораи мувофиқро интихоб кунед:

  1. ……. controls all the financial dealings of the company.
  2. a) Senior Manager b) Accountant c) Sales Manager
  3. The ……. is responsible for keeping a continuous supply of work flowing to all production staff.
  1. a) Production Manager b) Sales Manager c) Distribution Manager
  2. The ……. has the major responsibility for running of the company.
  3. a) Distribution Manager b) Managing Director c) Production Manager
  4. A human resources department is responsible for recruitment of new ……..
  1. a) employers b) directors c) employees
  2. A marketing department is responsible for ………
  3. a) recruitment b) market research c) promotion

Машқи 6. Ба саволҳо ҷавоб диҳед:

  1. What is organizational structure?
  2. Who are directors chosen by?
  3. What is the function of a human resources department?
  4. What are the main departments needed for a company to function properly?
  1. What department is responsible for servicing the functional areas of the company?

Машқи 7. Ибораҳои зеринро азёд кунед:

To my mind … In my experience …
In my opinion … As far as I understand …
On the one hand, …on the other hand From my point of view …
If my memory serves me right … If I am not mistaken …
It seems to me that … Personally, I think …
My personal view is that … I am sure/certain/convinced that …
The fact is that … This proves that …
It is obvious that … There is no doubt that …

Машқи 8. Намунаи гуфтугӯро хонед ва муоширатеро тартиб диҳед:

– Dear Mr/ Ms Jones,
– Dear Dr Smith,
– Dear Sir/ Madam,
– I am writing to let you know that your payment is overdue.
– Thank you for your e-mail of 29 February regarding the sale of…
– I am sending you the brochure as an attachment.
– Please see the statement attached.
– I am afraid I cannot open the file you have sent me.
– Could you send it again in … format?
– I look forward to hearing from you.
– Yours faithfully, (when you start with Dear Sir/ Madam,)
– Yours sincerely, (when you start with the name e.g. Dear Ms Collins)

Машқи 9. Ба мактуби зерин бо истифода аз калима ва ибораҳои зерин ҷавоб гӯед:

You are a Director of Sales department. One of your salesmen sent you a request for promotion to the position of a sales manager. Your task is:

  1. a) thank Mr. Watkins for his letter;
  2. b) express Mr. Watkins the idea that you agree with his request to promote him to the position of a sales manager and give reasons for that;
  3. c) settle the time for meeting in order to discuss all the details.
Tom Wilson
Electronics ltd.
12 South Street,
Sheffield, UK
Dear Mr. Wilson,
As you know, I am very happy to work and contribute to Electronics ltd. under your authority.
Allow me to mention an opportunity that I see for greater profits.
I’m confident that you will agree that my efforts as your salesman have been successful to the company; my sales in dollars for the past year were roughly $425,000, which far surpassed the $250,000 goal we anticipated at our year-end meeting twelve months ago.
I would like you to know that I believe I can be of even more benefit to you and Electronics ltd. as your Sales Manager.
Having had four years of experience in selling our computer software, I have gained a clear idea as to what our customers’ needs are and how we can meet them. I know how we can increase sales dramatically and I can inspire our sales team to do precisely that. As your Sales Manager, I truly believe that we can achieve in excess of $10,000,000 in sales by the year 2012.
I understand that you are a very busy person. I will thus be delighted to meet with you at any time you please to discuss my request.Cordially,
Dave Watkins